The small West African state was one of a few African countries, along with Burkina Faso, Swaziland and São Tomé and Príncipe, to recognize Taiwan, which China regards as a wayward province to be recovered by force if necessary.
China and Taiwan had for years tried to poach each others allies, often dangling generous aid packages in front of leaders of developing nations.
But they began an unofficial diplomatic truce after signing a series of landmark trade and economic agreements in 2008 after the election of the China-friendly Ma Ying-jeou as Taiwan’s president, as Beijing tried to convince Taiwan of its friendly intentions after decades of hostility and suspicion.
While Gambia severed relations with Taiwan in November 2013, causing anger in Taipei, China had held off establishing formal ties with it until now.
“From here on, China and Gambia’s relations have turned over a new leaf,” Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told his Gambian counterpart, Neneh Macdouall-Gaye, China’s Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
“The early resumption of ties accords with the basic interests of both countries and conforms to the trend of the times and general trend of the development of China-Africa friendship and cooperation,” Wang added.
Macdouall-Gaye, in comments carried on Chinese state television, said the entire Gambian nation supported “the national reunification, peaceful reunification” of China and Taiwan.
Taiwan’s Foreign Ministry expressed regret and said it would work to boost cooperation and friendship with its remaining friends.
“Taiwan’s Foreign Ministry and its overseas missions will continue to be vigilant and pay close attention to China’s pressure on the international scene to safeguard our country’s interests,” it said in a statement.
Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council said its counterpart in Beijing, the Taiwan Affairs Office, had warned it earlier in the day the announcement was coming.
The news came as President Ma is on a visit to allies Guatemala and Belize.
Beijing has repeatedly warned against any moves toward independence since Tsai Ing-wen and her pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party won the presidential and parliamentary elections. Tsai assumes office in May.
Tsai has said she would maintain peace with China, and Chinese state-run media have noted her pledges to maintain the “status quo” with China.
In a separate question and answer statement, China’s Foreign Ministry did not directly address whether the decision on relations with Gambia was a warning to Tsai or marked the end of the truce.
“We uphold the one-China principle. The direction of promoting the peaceful development of cross-Taiwan Strait has not changed,” it said.
By Ben Blanchard and J.R. Wu